paper is the first detailed presentation of S. Škreb’s
complete work, due to various circumstances, is still not adequately known,
although essential for the progress in science and especially for the progress
of the Geophysical Institute in
The description of his life and work gives an insight into his specific work, which attracted attention at a rather early stage. The description of Škreb’s activity as Director of the Institute brings to light numerous difficulties he was confronted with, and which were due first to the situation after the First World War, then to the poor concern of the authorities for the development of science in this region, and finally to the outbreak of the Second World War. Nevertheless, under Škreb’s leadership the Institute was noted for the quality of its results and their significance, which consequently produced a fruitful co-operation with numerous institutions at home and abroad.
paper gives a description of S. Škreb’s
activity as Professor of Geophysics at the
The enclosed bibliography is the most comprehensive list of Škreb’s scientific papers and studies or discussions so far, including the papers written about him. It is preceded by the presentation of his main papers. Škreb’s scientific work deals with problems of theoretical meteorology, meteorological statistics and climatology, and comprises critical treatises from different fields of geophysics in a broader sense.
Škreb’s first paper dates from 1910 and treats the influence of the Earth’s rotation on the atmospheric circulation. His mathematical and numerical results belong to the basic material for further development in the study of atmospheric circulation.
study of the climate and climatic elements in
Škreb’s papers on climatiological statistics are distinguished by a critical approach to statistical methods when applied to meteorological data. Furthermore, he dealt with specific properties of meteorological time series, as well as with the necessity of specifications of the least square method when applied in climatology. He pointed on the existence of symmetrical and asymmetrical frequency distributions in climatology, which resulted in other ways of statistical analyses. With these studies he tried to abolish the formal application of statistical methods in climatology.
The topics of Škreb’s scientific debates are many-sided. The most significant ones comprise: by accepting Kepler’s idea of explaining gravitation by the radiation theory he stressed the role of “movement quantity”, and introduced its elementary quantity by the name of “kormo”; he also discussed the cause of the celestial body rotation existence; moreover, he made a detailed analysis of the meaning and significance of basic terms of Newton’s mechanics.
paper includes written memories of his students and collaborations, describing
S. Škreb in his everyday work and life, thus completing
this presentation of the efforts of a man who dedicated all his life to the
development of science and to the existence and development of the Geophysical
The baroclinic hydrodynamic instability of zonal flow has been studied by a two-level model which takes into account the influence of a barotropic, nonlinear shear in a quasigeostrophic atmosphere. There are regions where a horizontal wind shear supports the baroclinic amplification of an unstable wave. It can be found near the inflexional part of the zonal flow meridional profile.
The considered stochastic model is based on the assumption that the series of observations of cloud cover can be represented by the series of normal variates which have properties of the Markov process. This assumption made possible the estimation of the joint probabilities for 1331 (=113) possible combinations of observations on the basis of frequency distribution of cloud cover at 7, 14, and 21 local time. The theoretical frequency distribution of mean daily cloud amount is obtained by adding the joint probabilities which contribute to the corresponding class (nearest tenth). The autocorrelation coefficient, which is the only free model parameter, has been determined in the way that the theoretical distribution fits the observed distribution in the best way. The differences between these two distributions could be partly explained by the contributions of mesoscale processes (convective storm, radiation fog) which have a much lower persistence than the prevailing large scale processes. Finally, there is a brief survey of possible applications of the results on the data control, the evolution of weather modification and the verification of forecast.
Lambeck and Hopgood (1981, 1982) have made a comparative study of spectral characteristics of the angular momentum of atmospheric circulation and fluctuations in the Length-of-Day (LOD) data. The Fourier analysis of these data reveals a good correlation between the two processes, including a large spread of power in the range of a 20- to 70-month period. We re-examine here the above two time series by using the Walsh spectral analysis, which seems to be more appropriate for series with sharp peaks and reversals. The comparative study shows that in addition to 12-, 6- and 3-month seasonal terms, the present work discovers statistically significant (90% confidence interval) periods of (i) 26 months (hitherto weakly resolved) associated with a quasibiennial term, and (ii) 40 ± 4 months in both the data. The resolution of the spread components removes meteorological noise uncertainity from astronomical observations of LOD in the study of the excitation mechanism of solid earth.
The role of ozone in the atmosphere, the characteristics of its spatial distribution and annual variation are analyzed.
Two important ozone related problems, polar ozone holes and photochemical smog, are considered.
In the paper two models of topographic Rossby waves are reviewed. The first one reproduces the
propagation of waves along the straight coast, and is based on the paper
published by V. T. Buchwald and J. K. Adams in 1968. The second model simulates
the propagation of waves in a circular basin, and is described in some detail
on the basis of derivation sketched by H. Lamb and his Hydrodynamics (1932).
Both models have been applied on the
Based on the catalogue of all located