8.  Ganesh Kumar, T., Murugan, D., Rajalakshmi, K. and Manish, T.I: Image enhancement and performance evaluation using various filters for IRS-P6 Satellite LISS IV remotely sensed data.

This paper presents fast and effective filtering techniques for image enhancement from remote sensing Indian remote sensing satellite P6 Liss IV remotely sensed data like Near-Infrared band. There are four filtering techniques used for image enhancement based on spatial domain filters and frequency domain filters such as median filter, wiener filter, bilateral filter and Gaussian homomorphic filter and selected noises salt and pepper and Gaussian noise used with filter. Selected images tested with each filter and based on PSNR performance metric value and best filtering technique identified from these filters. Finally, Gaussian homomorphic filtering technique is suitable for image enhancement of the Liss IV remotely sensed Near-Infrared band. Image enhancement technique is preprocessing for future work such as edge detection and image segmentation.

Keywords: enhancement, median filter, wiener filter, bilateral filter, gaussian homomorphic filter, Liss IV data

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9.  Jeihouni, M., Delirhasannia, R., Alavipanah, S. K., Shahabi, M. and Samadianfard, S.: Spatial analysis of groundwater electrical conductivity using ordinary kriging and artificial intelligence methods. Case Study: Tabriz Plain, Iran.

Artificial intelligence (AI) systems have opened a new horizon to analyze water engineering and environmental problems in recent decades. In this study performances of ordinary kriging (OK) as a linear geostatistical estimator and two intelligent methods including artificial neural networks (ANN) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) are investigated. For this purpose, geographical coordinates of 120 observation wells that located in Tabriz plain, north-west of Iran, were defined as inputs and groundwater electrical conductivities (EC) were set as output of models. Eighty percent of data were randomly selected to train and develop mentioned models and twenty percent of data used for testing and validating. Finally, the outputs of models were compared with the corresponding measured values in observation wells. Results indicated that ANFIS model provided the best accuracy among models with the root mean squared error (RMSE) value of 1.69 dS.m-1 and correlation coefficient (R) of 0.84. The RMSE values in ANN and OK were calculated 1.97 and 2.14 dS.m-1 and the R values were determined 0.79 and 0.76, respectively. According to the results, the ANFIS method predicted EC precisely and can be advised for modeling groundwater salinity.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, ordinary kriging, electrical conductivity, Tabriz plain, groundwater

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10.  Rožić, N.: Kinematic models of recent motion of the Earth's crust on the territory of Croatia, Slovenia and Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Based on relative height displacement grid models of the Earth's crust, related to the territory of the Croatia, Slovenia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, which were created by modelling of the benchmark height data contained in levelling networks of the Austrian precise levelling (APN), and First (INVT) and Second (IINVT) levelling of high accuracy, possibility of creation of uniformly accelerated or decelerated motion model and uniform motion model of Earth's crust is analyzed. Kinematic laws of straight-line benchmark height motion has been applied to the values of Earth's crust height displacements that are associated with the nodes in the grid models of relative height displacements created between explicit epochs APN and INVT, and APN and IINVT. This application enabled determination of motion kinematic parameters associated with the grid nodes. Kinematic parameter's determination, structuring and including in a separate grid models, in analogy to the relative height displacement grid models, along with definition of basic kinematic equations of uniformly accelerated or decelerated motion and uniform motion of Earth's crust, allowed for the territory of the Croatia, Slovenia and Bosnia and Herzegovina kinematic models creation.

Keywords: height displacement, displacement models, Earth's crust kinematics, Croatia

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11.  Klaić, Z. B., Ollier, S. J, Babić, K. and Bešlić, I.: Influences of outdoor meteorological conditions on indoor wintertime short-term PM1 levels.

We investigated the relationship between wintertime 1-min mean urban indoor particulate matter mass concentrations for particles with aerodynamic diameter of < 1 μm (PM1) and outdoor atmospheric conditions. Particle concentrations were measured by two light-scattering laser photometers. Aerosol monitors were placed in the ground and first floor corridors of an university building, with inlets at heights of 1.7 m above the floor. The building is located in residential area of Zagreb, Croatia. During the experiment usual student and employee activities were occurring within the building. Surface meteorological data were collected at a nearby outdoor location. Results show the dependence of indoor PM1 on outdoor meteorology, with the strongest responses to air temperature and relative humidity, whilst global radiation impacts were almost negligible. Response times varied from 1.2 hours (for relative humidity) to 2.7 days (for global radiation). Furthermore, elevated mean concentrations point to the 8-9 km distant industrial zone. Both, PM1 and meteorological data series exhibited semidiurnal, diurnal and the long-term (about 10-11 days and about 21 day) periodicity. The long-term periodicity of PM1 time series might be associated with Rossby waves. Possible association with Rossby waves needs to be investigated further.

Keywords : cross-correlation, DUSTTRAK Aerosol Monitor, 1-min mean, residential, spectral analysis, time lag, urban

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