Vol. 37, No. 1

1.  Li, J., C. Ding, F. Li and W. Lin: and Youlong Chen (2020): Different effects of latent heat in planetary boundary layer and cloud microphysical processes on typhoon Sarika (2016).

Three simulation experiments were conducted on Typhoon (TC) "Sarika" (2016) using the WRF model, different effects of the latent heat in planetary boundary layer and cloud microphysical process on the TC were investigated. The control experiment well simulated the changes in TC track and intensity. The latent heat in planetary boundary layer or cloud microphysics process can affect the TC track and moving speed. Latent heat affects the TC strength by affecting the TC structure. Compared with the CTL experiment, both the NBL experiment and the NMP experiment show weakening in dynamics and thermodynamics characteristics of TC. Without the effect of latent heat, the TC cannot develop upwards and thus weakens in its intensity and reduces in precipitation; this weakening effect appears to be more obvious in the case of closing the latent heat in planetary boundary layer.

The latent heat in planetary boundary layer mainly influences the generation and development of TC during the beginning stage, whereas the latent heat in cloud microphysical process is conducive to the strengthen and maintenance of TC in the mature stage. The latent heat energy of the cloud microphysical process in the TC core region is an order of magnitude larger than the surface enthalpy. But the latent heat release of cloud microphysical processes is not the most critical factor for TC enhancement, while the energy transfer of boundary layer processes is more important.

Keywords: typhoon, latent heat, planetary boundary layer, cloud microphysical processes

[ PDF]

2.  Ovcharuk, V., E. Gopchenko, O. Todorova and K. Myrza (2020): Calculating the characteristics of flash floods on small rivers in the Mountainous Crimea.

The maximal surface runoff from territory of the Crimean Mountains is represented as a runoff of small rivers that flow through the western and eastern part of the northern slope and from the southern coast. The materials from 54 water gauging stations (WGS) were used to characterize the maximum runoff during rain and meltwater-rain floods on the rivers in the Crimean Mountains. A modified reduction structure of a calculation formula was used for valuation of the maximal runoff of different origin flash flood for rivers at the Mountainous Crimea. The main parameters of the proposed model are summarized as dependencies on the average height of the catchments and generalized in the form of a map. It is also possible to use the second variant of the suggested method taking into account the factor of underlying surface is introduced. Comparison of the calculated values of maximal runoff shows good convergence with both the initial information, and the largest values in the observation period.

Keywords: maximum runoff, flash flood, isochrone

[ PDF]

3.  Beden, N. and A. . Keskin (2020): Flood hazard assessment of a flood-prone intensively urbanized area - A case study from Samsun Province, Turkey.

Flooding is one of the most catastrophic events among the wide spectrum of natural disasters that impact human communities. The identification of flood-prone areas and the probability of occurrence, or estimated return period, of flood events are fundamental to proper planning for flood management and minimi-zation of the social and economic costs of flood damage. In this study, 2D flood models of the Mert River, which flows into the Black Sea at Samsun in north-central Turkey, were developed. Based on the flood modeling results, flood extent, flood depth and flood hazard maps for the river were produced and they showed that the study area is particularly flood prone, as evidenced by catastrophic flooding in 2012. Specifically, the estimated 100-, 500- and 1000-year peak discharges would affect 184 ha, 262 ha and 304 ha, respectively, of the 1200 ha study area. Hazard ratings for the areas expected to be affected are shown in the flood hazard maps generated. The results of this research can be used by local government agencies in Samsun for the development of policies, strategies and actions that would help minimize the social and economic impacts of flooding, especially adjacent to the downstream sections where there is intensive development on the flood plain.

Keywords: flood modeling, flood mapping, MIKE 11, MIKE 21, Samsun, Turkey

[ PDF]

4.  Pervez, S., R. K. Sahu, M. Tripathi, S. Bano, J. L. Matawle, S. Tiwari, M. K. Deb and Y. F. Pervez (2020): Assessment and evaluation of ambient PM2.5 in relation to its health effects in mineral-based coal-fired industrial areas.

Atmospheric PM2.5 pollution, has shown potential impact on the human health in general, thus it requires to look into the chemical characteristics of PM2.5 masses for designing effective policies to reduce health risks amongst public under exposure. The study carried out, here, has presented the ambient PM2.5 concentrations, concentrations of chemical compounds and associated health risks over rural and urban environments in the area of mineral based coal-fired industrial areas of central India for a period of one year (2015-16). Overall 260 PM2.5 samples, collected from rural, urban and industrial sites, were analyzed for various elements Al, As, Ca, Hg, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, K, Cd, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Sb, Na, Mg, K, V and Zn, ions such as Na+, Mg2+, K+, Ca2+, F-, Cl-, NH4+, NO3-, SO42- and carbonaceous matter. The annual average PM2.5 mass concentrations were found to be ~2 to ~6 folds higher than the annual National Ambient Air Quality standard (40 µg m-3). Further this study also evaluates, carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risks associated with ambient PM2.5 exposures (via ingestion, inhalation and dermal). The elemental species that have shown non-carcinogenic risks for both children and adults of all three sites are: Co, Mn, Ni (rural), As, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, V (urban and industrial sites). Similarly, the excess carcinogenic risks, in total, from Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb was found to be higher than acceptable limits (10-6 to 10-4).

Keywords: ambient PM2.5, chemical characteristics, ion balance, mass reconstruction, health risks

[ PDF]